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Negative temperature: Understanding what happens below absolute zero

Extremetech: Temperature is typically thought of as the average energy of individual atoms or molecules within a given collection. For atoms of similar mass, this “kinetic temperature” would basically be their speed at equilibrium. For a group of molecules, we have just a little extra accounting to do. Their total energy is also partitioned into the relative motions of their constituent atoms oscillating about their bonds, typically either bending or translating motions.

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